### Radiative heat transfer in rotary kilns | SpringerLink

Radiative heat transfer between a nongray freeboard gas and the interior surfaces of a rotary kiln has been studied by evaluating the fundamental radiative exchange integrals using numerical methods. Direct gas-to-surface exchange, reflection of the gas radiation by the kiln wall, and kiln wall-to-solids exchange have been considered. Graphical representations of the results have .